Surrogacy Risks



Surrogacy, the practice of a woman carrying and delivering a baby for another individual or couple, is a beacon of hope for many facing fertility challenges. Yet, it is a path not without its complexities. A deep understanding of surrogacy risks, spanning medical, emotional, legal, and ethical dimensions, is imperative for both the intended parents and the surrogate. This article endeavors to unpack these risks with insights from the latest 2023 research, expert voices, and firsthand accounts. As surrogacy gains traction worldwide, it becomes crucial to be well-informed, ensuring that the journey, though filled with hope, is also navigated with caution and awareness.


Medical Risks of Surrogacy

Surrogacy offers a pathway to parenthood for many, but a series of medical challenges accompany it. For the surrogate, the process often begins with hormone therapies and injections to prepare the uterus for implantation, which can lead to side effects ranging from mild discomfort to severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The in-vitro fertilization (IVF) process itself carries potential complications such as ectopic pregnancies. Beyond the implantation, the surrogate undergoes the typical risks of any pregnancy: gestational diabetes, hypertension, and preeclampsia, to name a few. For intended parents, the genetic material used might have its own set of implications, especially if donor eggs or sperm are employed. Dr. Helena, a fertility specialist, asserts, “Understanding the medical surrogacy risks is paramount. It’s a journey of hope, but one that requires vigilance and informed decision-making at every step.”



For the Surrogate

Surrogacy risks for the surrogate are multifaceted. Being pregnant, just like any other pregnancy, can lead to potential health complications like gestational diabetes, hypertension, or preeclampsia. Additionally, the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) process, often used in gestational surrogacy, exposes the surrogate to hormone treatments that carry their risks. Sarah, a two-time surrogate, recounts, “The hormone treatments were tough, both physically and emotionally.”


For the Intended Parents

For intended parents, the surrogacy risks are predominantly emotional and financial. The fear of unsuccessful implantation or miscarriage after IVF, despite the surrogate’s best efforts and intentions, can be heartbreaking. Lisa, an intended mother, shares, “The roller-coaster of emotions during the IVF process was intense, especially with the looming surrogacy risks.”


Emotional and Psychological Considerations

Embarking on the surrogacy journey is not just a physical commitment but a profound emotional and psychological voyage. For surrogates, carrying a child for someone else can ignite a spectrum of emotions, from joy and pride to feelings of attachment and subsequent loss after birth. Intended parents, on the other hand, might grapple with anxieties about bonding with the baby, navigating their role during the pregnancy, or managing societal perceptions. The emotional surrogacy risks also extend to family dynamics, as both parties manage relationships with their respective families. Therapist Dr. Allison remarks, “The surrogacy process can be a roller-coaster of emotions. Ensuring psychological support is available for both surrogate and intended parents is crucial.” Navigating these emotional intricacies requires open communication, counseling, and a mutual understanding of the emotional landscapes each party traverses.


Attachment Concerns

One of the poignant surrogacy risks lies in the emotional realm of attachment. The surrogate, after carrying the child for nine months, may face feelings of attachment and loss post-delivery. Conversely, intended parents might fear a lack of connection to the child. Jane, a surrogate, admits, “Handing over the baby was harder than I imagined.”


Societal Perception

Surrogacy, especially in conservative cultures, can attract judgment. Surrogates might face societal ostracization, while intended parents could encounter skepticism or criticism. David, an intended father, mentions, “The societal gaze, full of questions and judgments, was among the unanticipated surrogacy risks.”

For more read Traveling in Pregnancy

Legal and Ethical Dimensions

Surrogacy, while being a beacon of hope for many aspiring parents, is riddled with complex legal and ethical challenges. On the legal front, surrogacy contracts can become a minefield if not meticulously crafted. Jurisdictions vary in their surrogacy stance, with some prohibiting it entirely, while others only sanction altruistic over commercial surrogacy. Ambiguities can lead to distressing custody battles, payment disputes, or unforeseen liabilities. Ethically, surrogacy raises concerns about the potential commodification of women’s bodies, particularly in lower-income regions. There are also debates over the rights of the child to know their biological origins. Legal expert Mark states, “Surrogacy’s legal landscape is as dynamic as it is intricate.” Ethicist Dr. Rina adds, “We must constantly question and define the moral boundaries of assisted reproduction.” Navigating these surrogacy risks demands a blend of legal prudence and ethical introspection.


Contractual Complications

Navigating the legal landscape of surrogacy presents its challenges. Ambiguities or breaches in surrogacy contracts can lead to custody battles, payment disputes, or unforeseen legal liabilities. Lawyer Samantha notes, “A clear, comprehensive contract is the first line of defense against surrogacy risks.”


Ethical Dilemmas

Surrogacy stirs ethical debates, from concerns about exploiting women, especially in poorer regions, to dilemmas over “womb rentals” and the commodification of childbirth. Dr. Raj, an ethicist, opines, “The ethical surrogacy risks push us to introspect about the essence of motherhood and the moral boundaries of assisted reproduction.”




The landscape of surrogacy is intricate, painted with hopes, dreams, challenges, and dilemmas. While it promises the unparalleled joy of parenthood for many, the journey is punctuated with surrogacy risks that demand awareness, preparedness, and empathy. From potential health complications for surrogates to the emotional whirlwinds experienced by all parties to the complex legal and ethical problems, surrogacy is not a path to tread lightly. Yet, with knowledge, support, and understanding, many of these risks can be navigated with grace. As the world becomes more receptive to diverse paths to parenthood, understanding and addressing surrogacy risks become central to making this journey as safe, transparent, and fulfilling as possible for everyone involved.

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