Different Causes of Infertility in Males


Infertility is a critical issue that involves men and women, those who are having unprotected sex for one year, and not getting pregnant yet. About 15% of couples face infertility problems worldwide. This statistic is not only for women! In recent research, the causes of infertility in males and females are being seriously investigated. But what do we mean by infertility in males?! In general, any problem in a man’s reproductive system that reduces his partner’s chance of pregnancy is referred to as infertility.

In this article, we provide a complete survey of infertility causes in males. Let’s get started.


What Does Cause Infertility in Men?

Infertility in males can be caused by biological or environmental factors. In the following, we determine the essential causes of male infertility.



1. Sperm Disorders

The most common cause of infertility in males can be attributed to problems related to the production and growth of sperm. In this case, the sperm:

  • Does not develop properly,
  • It will have a strange shape,
  • Does not move in the right direction,
  • It is produced in very small quantities (oligospermia),
  • It is not produced at all (azoospermia).


2. Varicocele

Varicocele is the swelling of the vessels inside the scrotum, which causes the temperature of the testicles. Varicocele may affect one or both testicles, causing low sperm count and abnormal sperm morphology, which are known as causes of infertility in males.


3. Obstruction

When the tubes transporting the sperm are blocked, the man will face the problem of infertility. In this case, the sperm is unable to leave the testicles during ejaculation. Factors such as vasectomy, persistent infections, congenital defects, inflammation, or swelling can lead to blockage of transporting tubes.


4. Hormonal Problems

The level of sex hormones and the production of sperm is regulated by a set of glands and their hormones. Disruption in this process can be considered a cause of infertility in males. Studies show that a low percentage of male infertility is related to hormonal problems, but it is worth it to review some of the hormonal problems that cause infertility in males.

  • Impaired production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by the pituitary gland,
  • Testosterone deficiency,
  • Increasement in levels of prolactin,
  • Thyroid issues,
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.


5. Physical Disabilities

Physical disabilities can be considered one of the vital causes of male infertility. These problems interfere with the process of sperm production and its descent from the testicles to the tip of the penis. The main physical issues for male infertility are:

  • Aging (while it passes 40),
  • Being overweight (BMI above 30),
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and addictive substances (the presence of nicotine and cannabinoids causes problems in testicles).


6. Infections and Diseases

Mumps, tuberculosis, brucellosis, gonorrhea, typhoid, influenza, smallpox, and syphilis can cause testicular tissue degeneration and low sperm count, and low sperm motility. Some sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, are also known for blocking the epididymis or sperm transport tubes.


7. Retrograde Ejaculation

In this case, the semen moves backward into the body as a result of cloudy urine or dry ejaculation. In other words, the semen with healthy sperm enters the bladder due to the lack of movement in the right direction. Retrograde ejaculation is usually resolved with surgery, medication, or treating the nervous system.


How Is Infertility in Males Diagnosed

The diagnosis starts with a complete physical test to identify any problem that may impact fertility. Afterward, the doctor may do a semen analysis to determine the following factors:

  • Sperm volume,
  • Acidity or basicity’s pH,
  • Sperm concentration,
  • Total sperm count,
  • Velocity,
  • Linearity,
  • Morphology,
  • Color,
  • Viscosity.


Also, the doctor may do other sperm analyses to examine sperm viability, quality, shape, and motility. Many male diseases can be diagnosed and treated by consulting an experienced urologist. If you are looking for the best urologist to treat infertility in males abroad, CarefulTrip will help you contact experienced urologists in Iran.


For more information, Read:


Infertility Factors & Anything You Should Know About It


What Are the Treatments of Infertility in Males?

Today, with the development of modern methods, infertility in males can be solved easily. Some of these methods are:


Drug Therapy

This method is known as a non-surgical therapy for male infertility. In this procedure, doctors do hormone therapy to increase sperm quantities.


Lifestyle Changes

Sometimes, a change in your lifestyle can treat infertility issues. To change your lifestyle into a healthy one, consider the tips below:

  • Stay fit,
  • Have a healthy diet,
  • Stop drinking alcohol,
  • Stop smoking



Here’s a list of surgeries to treat infertility in males:

Vasoepididymostomy: If the vas deferens are blocked due to infertility, doctors will remove the blocking agent is removed and connect the end of the pipe.

Sperm retrieval: This procedure is performed with a biopsy of the testicle to find healthy sperm.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: In this method (ICSI), sperm is artificially and physically injected into the egg.

In vitro fertilization: In IVF, the mature eggs are exposed to sperm in a laboratory environment.

CarefulTrip’s experts help couples to find out the reasons for their infertility and treat it with the help of infertility doctors.



To Wrap Things Up

After identifying the causes of male infertility, modern technologies, and treatments can help men to have their own genetic children. As we mentioned before, infertility in males is caused by biological or environmental factors, but there are several ways to treat this issue. Luckily, most couples can hope to have their own baby through an IVF procedure.

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