An eye examination is the examination of the human eye through a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist, or orthoptist to assess visual acuity, visual concentration, the ability to distinguish objects, and other studies and measurements. According to WHO experts, all people should have access to periodic and thorough vision examinations as part of routine primary medical examinations, especially after injuries or for diagnosing eye diseases, because many complications can be asymptomatic for a long time. In addition, a preventive test by a specialist doctor can detect eye diseases that, if left untreated, can progress and cause blindness and ocular manifestations of many systemic disorders or signs of neoplasms or other brain abnormalities. As your eyes are considered the most sensitive and essential parts of your body,
you need to have eye exams in Iran before any eye treatment. Experienced eye specialists and advanced gears are used for performing eye treatment in Iran. Approximately 85 percent of the human brain’s data is transmitted through the eyes.


Complete diagnostic examination

It takes about 2-2.5 hours and includes:

  • accurate determination of visual acuity and refraction of the eye
  • intraocular pressure measurement
  • examination of the eye under a microscope (biomicroscopy)
  • corneal thickness measurement (pachymetry)
  • determination of eye length (echobiometry)
  • ultrasound examination of the eye (B-scan)
  • computed keratotopography
  • a thorough examination of the retina and optic nerve
  • determination of the level of tear production
  • detailed examination of the visual field
  • If specific pathologies are identified, the scope of the examination can be expanded.

Ideally, an examination of the human eye includes an external review and an appropriate set of tests to determine visual acuity, study the function of the eye and oculomotor muscles (eye mobility, ability to accommodate), visual fields, measurement of intraocular pressure (eye tonometry) and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil to study the condition of the fundus.

The minimal eye examination consists of tests to determine visual acuity, examination of the function of the eye and oculomotor muscles, and direct ophthalmoscopy through a regular (non-medicated) pupil.

Step by Step Guide for an Eye Examination

The examination of the patient begins with patients giving their medical history to determine what is bothering them, informing the doctor how long the problem has been bothering them and if they have a history of chronic diseases. Then, a physical determination of the refraction of the eye and non-contact measurement of intraocular pressure is carried out.


How to Test Visual Acuity During an Eye Examination

Visual acuity is traditionally tested using unique tables with letters, pictures, or other symbols. The doctor changes glasses, selecting the most optimal lenses that provide the best vision. Visual acuity is determined first with a narrow pupil, then in conditions of a wide pupil (after cycloplegia) at the end of the examination. The maximum visual acuity in glasses predicts visual acuity after laser correction.


Testing the Anterior Segment of the Eye

Inspection of the anterior segment of the eye (eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, lens, etc.) is carried out using a slit lamp. The doctor assesses the state of the eye's structures: the presence of scars, opacities, inflammatory changes, etc.


Studying the Visual Fields During an Eye Examination

A complete examination includes a study of the visual fields. The analysis allows you to identify changes in visual fields in a particular pathology. For example, with tapetoretinal abiotrophy, patients complain of a deterioration in twilight vision. When examining them, a concentric narrowing of the visual fields is revealed. In some cases, if changes in visual areas are detected, the patient might need to consult a neurologist.


Eye Examination Before Refractive Surgery

The most informative method before refractive surgery is performing computer topography on the cornea, which gives an idea of ​​the structure of the surface of the cornea, like a geographical map, which allows the doctor to exclude or diagnose keratoconus, astigmatism with maximum accuracy while measuring the thickness of the cornea (pachymetry) at various points by non-contact and contact methods. These studies allow the doctor to calculate the maximum allowable depth of laser exposure for high myopia. Based on the data obtained, the question of the possibility of laser correction is decided.

If necessary, an ultrasound determination of the length of the eye, the depth of the anterior chamber, and the size of the lens are performed. An intraocular lens is calculated for the phacoemulsification operation in the presence of a cloudy lens (cataract).

For a complete examination, it is necessary to dilate the pupils with the drugs, which allows you to determine the static refraction (dynamic refraction, on a narrow pupil, is not always reliable). All patients undergo an examination of the fundus, including the extreme periphery, in conditions of an enlarged pupil to exclude dystrophic changes, subclinical retinal detachments, and hemorrhages.


What Happens After an Eye Examination?

After a thorough and complete examination, the doctor conducts a conversation with the patient and, based on all the data, prescribes the treatment, talking about the possible options. Analysis of the eyes requires strict thoroughness and consistency. An external investigation begins with a review of the brain and the facial skull. Attention is drawn to the head and facial skull's shape and dimensions and the symmetry of the face's right and left halves and parts.

You need to undergo a general eye exam in Iran appropriate to your age at indicated intervals to prevent the progress of any possible issues. To have an eye examination in Iran, you can visit an ophthalmologist or optometrist who will check your eyes regularly to ensure they are healthy.