Knee Replacement Surgery is a surgical procedure that involves replacing the worn articular surfaces of your knee with an artificial implant. The femoral surface is replaced by metal (an alloy with the predominance of Chromium and Cobalt). The tibial part and the patella are replaced by a type of plastic: polyethylene.
An incision is made in the anterior part of the knee and a passage is made in the internal part of the knee most often to access the joint.
Who needs a Knee Replacement Surgery?
Knee Replacement Surgery (the fitting of a knee prosthesis) is offered to people who are often retired (the elderly) but sometimes to people in a professional activity whose mobility of the knee joint is limited in flexion and extension movements and who present permanent pain and a limitation of the walking perimeter. In rare cases in young people as well, a prosthesis is placed in the event of significant joint destruction or polyarthritis.
These joint pathologies are manifested by various symptoms, in particular:
¨ phenomena of instability
¨ joint stiffness
Osteoarthritis and Knee Replacement Surgery
The knee is a load-bearing joint subject to significant daily mechanical stresses, repeated micro-traumas, and sports trauma (sprains). These "events" promote damage to the menisci and wear and tear on the joints. Osteoarthritis or arthrosis is a common knee disease (wear of the cartilage) that can be easily cured by a knee replacement surgery.
Osteoarthritis may only involve one or all three compartments of the knee. If the condition is advanced, the excessively worn knee joint is replaced by a prosthesis. Depending on the location and the extent of knee arthritis, this prosthesis can replace:
· a single compartment
· or the three knee compartments
These are implants that aim to replace the joint surfaces of the knee damaged in osteoarthritis. When the prosthesis replaces all the articular surfaces of the knee, it is called "total". When the prosthesis only replaces the damaged area and leaves the cartilage of the other compartments in place, it is called “uni-compartmental”.
Knee Replacement Surgery Recovery
Rehabilitation begins the same day and continues with a physiotherapist’s work. Full support is authorized the very afternoon of the operation, under cover of a pair of canes. Rehabilitation will be continued at home by a physiotherapist or in a rehabilitation center by a rehabilitation doctor. It aims to maintain the mobility of the knee and the periarticular muscles. Usually, the recovery times for a correct function are around the 3rd month and will be acquired between the 6th and 12th postoperative months.